Sifaat refers to the characteristic(s) of the letter
:the way in which a letter is articulated that differentiates it from others. The purpose of these characteristics is to distinguish the letters that share the same articulation points (makhaarij).
But why do we need sifaat when we already know the origin of the letter (makhraj)?
Makhaarij only provides information as to where the sound of the
letter comes from, whereas sifaat provides extra information with
regards to the characteristics of the letter in order to produce the
The whispering is also present when the letter has a harakaat (other than sukoon), but it is not as strong (it is more of a natural hems whereas when it carries a sukoon you have to emphasize the hems more)
However, the letters
ONLY have hems when they carry a sukoon (as they carry another characteristic, shiddah)
ALWAYS has strong hems, whatever the harakaat
Click 'here' to
view practice exercises for the rules of Hems
Definition:contact between the back of the tongue and the upper palate of the mouth.
This characteristic is necessary no matter what harakaat (not just when it carries a sakoon)
The quality of itbaaq is to pronounce in a closed and covered manner. That is, during pronunciation, the tongue is elevated to such an extent that it covers the palate and the mouth remains nearly closed
The quality of itbaaq is found in the following letters which are called mutbaqah
Definition: the speed of which the letters are pronounced because of the ease of the makhraj.
The quality of ithlaaq is to pronounce in a smooth and easy manner
The quality of ithlaaq is found in the following letters which are called mudhlaqah
The area of pronunciation of these letters, that is, the edge of the tongue or the edge of the mouth namely the lips, can be considered as factors contributing to the smooth and easy manner of pronunciation
The qalqalah is necessary for these letters because they have the attributes of
jahr (stoppage of the flow of breath) and
shiddah (stoppage of the flow of sound), so without qalqalah, there would be no sound!
There are 2 types :
The qalqalah letter will appear either in the middle or end of a word, but the reader will continue the recitation and will not stop on it
Definition: the quality of takreer is to pronounce in a repeated manner
The quality of takreer is found in one letter
and it is called mukarrarah
Therefore, while the
is being pronounced from its makhraj, naturally the tongue makes a slight vibration producing a repeated sound (i.e. rolling of the tongue). Care must be taken to avoid exaggeration of the vibration, otherwise instead of a single
there may be 2
or instead of a double (mushaddad
),there may be many
This is more of a caution than a rule - takreer should be
Definition: the quality of istitaalah is to pronounce a letter in a slow and elongated manner.
When pronounced, the sound of the letter will remain from the beginning
of the makhraj till the end (the extension of the sound covers the
entire sound of the tongue)
This quality is found in the letter
applies only if it carries a sukoon
Care must be taken not to exceed the required elongation