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Idghaam (إِدﻏﺎم)

Outside the rules of or Tanween, Idghaam can also occur in the Qur'an due to certain circumstances as will be mentioned now in this section

Idghaam can be separated into 3 different categories:

 

 


Idghaam Mutamaathilain (Idghaam of 2 identical letters)

This occurs when 2 same letters are found together, the first is saakina and the second is mutaharrik

  • As the 2 letters are the same, they therefore share the same makhraj and sifaat
  • So the first letter is blended into the second, hence the second letter takes a shaddah ()
  • This applies whether it is in one or two words (whether both letters fall into the same word, or one letter falls at the end of the first word, and the second letter falls into the start of the second word)
  • ghunnah is NOT pronounced (except for the letters and ,as ghunnah is ALWAYS pronounced for these 2 letters when they carry a shaddah)

Examples

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(24:33)

(2:16)

  • If the saakin letter is a letter of prolongation and is the last letter of a word, then this letter will NOT be assimilated into the following same letter (the mutahaarik one)

Examples

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(90:14)

 

Please note, Idghaam can either be complete or incomplete:

Complete – when there is absolutely NO trace of the saakin letter during pronunciation, as is in this category of Idghaam Mutamaathilain.

Incomplete – when there is SOME trace of the saakin letter during pronunciation, as you can see in the examples below, and later.

Click 'here' to view practice exercises for the rules of Idghaam Mutamaathilain

 

Idghaam Mutajaanisain (Idghaam of Similarity)

 

Requirement :

  • This occurs when 2 letters have the same makhaarij, but different sifaat
  • The 1st letter is saakina, the 2nd is mutaharrik

Effect :

  • The 2nd letter takes a shaddah
  • Incomplete Idghaam or Complete Idghaam depending on the order of the 2 letters
  • The saakined letter is blended into the mutaharrik letter

Further Notes :

  • This idghaam occurs at 3 makhaarij:
  1. The makhraj of

Complete Idghaam (no trace of the saakined letter)

  1. The blended into the

  • 2 letters of the SAME makhraj ( and  is tip of tongue)
  • But DIFFERENT sifaat
  • 1st letter is saakina
  • 2nd letter is mutaharrik
  • Therefore, is not pronounced
(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(2:256)

  1. The blended into the
  • 2 letters of the SAME makhraj
  • But DIFFERENT sifaat
  • 1st letter is saakina
  • 2nd letter is mutaharrik
  • Therefore, is not pronounced

Example

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(10:89)

  1. The blended into the
  • 2 letters of the SAME makhraj (from the tip of the tongue)
  • But DIFFERENT sifaat
  • 1st letter is saakina
  • 2nd letter is mutaharrik
  • Therefore, is not pronounced

Example

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(3:122)

Incomplete Idghaam

There is emergence of some of the sifaat of the first (saakined) letter

  1. The blended into the
  • 2 letters of the SAME makhraj
  • But DIFFERENT sifaat
  • 1st letter is saakina
  • 2nd letter is mutaharrik
  • The is incomplete so it will have some trace of its characteristics. The thickness will remain but the qalqalah will go
  • These rules apply whether they are in the same word (as in this example), or in two different words (as in the previous 2 examples)

Example

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(5:28)

  1. The makhraj of       

    Complete Idghaam

     

    1. The blended into the
  • 2 letters of the SAME makhraj (tip of the tongue)
  • But DIFFERENT sifaat
  • 1st letter is saakina
  • 2nd letter is mutaharrik
  • Therefore, is not pronounced

Example

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(4:64)

  1. The blended into the
  • 2 letters of the SAME makhraj (tip of tongue)
  • But DIFFERENT sifaat
  • 1st letter is saakina
  • 2nd letter is mutaharrik
  • Therefore, is not pronounced

Example

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(7:176)

  1. The makhraj of  

Complete Idghaam

  1. The blended into the
  • 2 letters of the SAME makhraj (lips)
  • But DIFFERENT sifaat
  • 1st letter is saakina
  • 2nd letter is mutaharrik
  • Ghunnah is pronounced for 2 counts
  • Therefore, is not pronounced

 

Example

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(11:42)

Click 'here' to view practice exercises for the rules of Idghaam Mutajaanisain

 

Idghaam Mutaqaaribain (near, close)

This idghaam occurs when 2 letters have a makhraj that are close together (whereas the previous 2 idghaam shared the same makhaarij)

This Idghaam occurs at 2 makhaarij, but carry different sifaat

  1. The makhraj of  

Complete Idghaam

  1. the blended into the
  • 2 letters of a CLOSE makhraj (side and tip of tongue)
  • And carry DIFFERENT sifaat
  • 1st letter is saakina
  • 2nd letter is mutaharrik
  • Therefore, is not pronounced

Example

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(18:22)

  1. The makhraj of the  

The following example can be pronounced either way, incomplete or complete

Incomplete Idghaam

  1. The blended into the
  • the possesses 2 main sifaat, but the ista'ala remains and the qalqalah qoes

Example

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(77:20)

 

Complete Idghaam

  1. The blended into the
  • the is blended completely (nothing remains of it), and the gets a shaddah
  • this is an exception of a thick letter being blended into a thin letter, which is why it can be pronounced either way
  • although both ways of recitation are correct, the complete idghaam is preferred

     

Example

(Surah:Verse)

Extract from Verse

(77:20)

Click 'here' to view practice exercises for the rules of Idghaam Mutaqaaribain

Click here to view a printable chart summarizing the rules of Idghaam

 

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