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Glossary

A - F G - K L - S T - Z
Basmala      'In the Name of Allah, Most Beneficent, Most Merciful'.
Dammah A small apostrophe-like shape written above a letter. It represents a short vowel 'u' (like the 'u' sound in 'who' but only stretched for 1 count).
Definite Article This is formed by adding the prefix "al" to the noun. "Al" is equal to "the" in English and it should be connected to the noun.
fathah A short diagonal stroke written above a letter. It represents a short vowel 'a' (like the 'a' sound in hat).
Ghunnah The sound that is produced from the nose and the tongue is not used. The duration of the ghunnah sound is for 2 counts.
Harakat

(pl. Harakaat)

The vowel movements.
Idghaam The blending or assimilation of the sound of 2 letters.
Ikhfaa The hiding or concealment of the sound of a letter.
Iqlaab The changing or turning of the sound of a letter.
Ith'haar The clarity of the sound of a letter.
Kasrah A short diagonal stroke written below a letter. It represents a short vowel 'i' (like the 'i' sound in 'bee' but only stretched for 1 count).
Lahn The incorrect pronunciation of a letter.
Madd The prolongation of the sound of a vowel.
Makhraj

(pl. Makhaarij)

The prescribed point of exit, or the point at which the sound originates.
Muttaharrik A letter which carries a vowel.
Nunnation See 'Tanween'.
Shaddah A small 'w' written above a letter. This represents a letter that has been doubled, and therefore sounds stronger.
Sifa

(pl.Sifaat)            

The manner of articulation (the characteristics of the letters and recitation).
Sukoon (Saakin) A small semi or full circle written above a letter. This represents a letter which does not have a vowel. It also joins 2 letters.
Tafkheem Also known as full mouth or thick letters. The elevation of the back of the tongue, resulting in a thick sound.
Tajweed To improve, make better. The correct pronunciation during recitation.
Tanween Vowels that produce a "nn" sound immediately after it.
Tanween (fathah) Known as 'fattatain', 2 fathahs written above a letter (like the 'an' sound in 'man'). It is usually supported by an alif.
Tanween (Kasrah) Known as 'kasratain', 2 kasrahs written below a letter (like the 'in' sound in 'win').
Tanween (dammah) Known as 'dammatain', 2 dammahs written above a letter (like the 'un' sound in 'bun').
Tarqeeq       The opposite of 'tafkheem'. Also known as empty mouth or thin letters. The lowering of the back of the tongue, resulting in a flat sound.
Tarteel The measured recitation of the Quran in rhythmic tones.
Ta'wawwuth 'I seek refuge in Allah from the rejected shaitaan'
Waqf To pause or to make a stop by breaking off the breath at the end of the word.
Wasl The opposite of waqf. The joining of verses / sentences without stopping.

 
 
 

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